History has numerous mysteries in its shroud. Among these is the tale of sacsayhuaman which was built by the Incas. Legend however tells a different story according to which the Earth, Wind and the Mountains carried the boulders which built Sacsayhuaman. If we are to believe this story, it was indeed supernatural forces which designed and build the Sacsayhuaman.
The truth is however far from this fact and it has been said that Incas build this with their hands. This has been supported with facts which cannot be ignored easily.
Boulders were the major raw material which was needed for building of Sacsayhuaman. Research conducted so far also states that boulders were already present at the site where Sacsayhuaman was designed. The masons therefore only added more stones at the site used the previously present stones as foundation.
Chroniclers however have a different point of view on this story. They point out that most of the stones were carried out from different quarries to the site. According to Pedro Gutierrez de Santa Clara, one of the chroniclers, the quarry was located 20 km from Cusco.
Another Chronicler, Garcilaso de la Vega stated that nearest quarry was 25 km from the site. Perhaps, he too was referring to Cusco. He also stated that the farthest quarry was at Yucay which was 75 km from Cusco.
Carrying the raw material was not an easy task and lot of man power was involved in the same. Juan de Betanzos points out that thousands of local people were engaged in the task of pulling huge boulders to the site. Ropes made from llama hair and leather was used for the same. Wood logs and round stones which acted as levers were also used to accomplish the task successfully.
Not much has been said about the tools which Incas used for carrying out this task. Garcilaso de la Vega is the chronicler who has shed some light on this. According to Garcilaso, the Incas used a kind of iron which is known as hihuana. Tools as hammers made from metal bars and stones have also been found near the site.
Building the walls was a complex task and as Cieza de Leon stated, the Incas built slants so that they could put a stone on one another. Gutierrez de Santa Clara also stated that soil was put until it reached the level of wall and thereafter stones were placed on the same.